Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Lime (ADSL) - an asymmetrical communication technique that uses standard phone wire for carrying 8-Mbps data rates downstream and 640-Kbps rates upstream.

ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) - a switching/transmission technique where data is transmitted in small, fixed sized cells (5 byte header, 48 byte payload). The cells lend themselves both to the time-division-multiplexing characteristics of the transmission media, and the packet switching characteristics desired of data networks. At each switching node, the ATM header identifies a virtual path or virtual circuit that the cell contains data for, enabling the switch to forward the cell to the correct next-hop trunk. The virtual path is set up through the involved switches when two endpoints wish to communicate.

Analog - A method of modulating radio signals so that they can carry information such as voice or data.

Asynchronous - When used to define a code set, character codes that contain start and stop bits. When used to define data transmission, a signal that does not need separate clock synchronization signal for data reception. Asynchronous transmission is also called start-stop transmission, because one character is sent at a time.

Bandwidth - Describes the transmission capacity of a medium/channel in terms of a range of frequencies. A greater bandwidth indicates the ability to transmit a greater amount of data over a given period of time.

Bps - Bits Per Second. Measure of the number of bits of information that are transmitted per second.

Broadband - Describes a communications medium capable of transmitting a relatively large amount of data over a given period of time. A communications channel of high bandwidth.

Bus - A common set of communication channels connecting parts of a system.

C - C is a programming language that has many features commonly found in higher-level languages. C and C++ are two of the most common programming languages used today. These programming languages are chosen by Braintree because of its high processing speed when compared to Java.

CCITT - Consultative Committee on International Telegraphy and Telephony. An international standards group.

Communication - The transfer of information between stations.

Connectivity - The logical or physical linking of network stations.

D Channel - In ISDN, the channel that provides data transmission and signalling information. The D channel provides the data needed for setting up the proper transmission of calls. The D-channel can be used to carry EFT, POS and security signalling.

Dedicated line - Medium that is used solely for data transmission between two locations. It is sometimes referred to as a leased line or private line.

Dial Up - Using facilities of the PSTN to establish a connection.

Digital - A method of encoding information using a binary code of 0s and 1s. Most newer wireless phones and networks use digital technology.

Digital signal - A signal that is composed of two energy levels (on and off or positive and negative current). Digital signals are used by computers to transmit data. The pattern of the energy-level change represents individual bits of information.

EFTPOS – Electronic Funds Transfer at Point of Sale

Encryption - The systematic encoding of a message or bit stream before transmission to prevent unauthorized recipients from understanding it. The process of again rendering the information readable is DECRYPTION.

Ethernet - A LAN protocol that supports high-speed communications in the local area. Usually rates are at 10 or 100Mbps.

Gateway - is a network point that acts as an entrance to another network.

Host - A computer system on a network.

Hub - A central point to and from which network communications flow.

IP - The Internet protocol that defines the unit of information passed between systems that provide a basis packet delivery service.

Interactive Voice Response (IVR) - A technology where someone uses a touch-tone telephone to interact with a database to acquire information from or enter data into the database. IVR technology does not require human interaction over the telephone as the user's interaction with the database is predetermined by what the IVR system will allow the user access to. For example, banks and credit card companies use IVR systems so that their customers can receive account information instantly and easily without having to speak directly to a person.

Interface - A logical or physical device allowing communication between two or more devices.

International Organization for Standardization - (ISO) A standards organization recognized for its development of 051 protocols and the 051 Reference Model.

ISDN - A telephone company line service technology that provides digital connectivity from end to end for transmission of voice and data simultaneously over a single “wire”. An ISDN wire provides 2 bearer channels, which may be used for supplying both voice and data service or combined for faster, higher bandwidth data transmissions, and a third channel (D-channel) which provides signalling information.

LED (Light Emitting Diode) - A light on a handset to alert the user of various conditions.

Legacy - In information technology, legacy applications and data are those that have been inherited from languages, platforms, and techniques earlier than current technology.

Local Area Network (LAN) - A network of computers and devices tied together for the sharing of data within a limited area. LAN coverage may include offices, buildings, or groups of buildings in a confined area such as a small college or work campus.

Modem - Equipment used for converting digital signals into analog for transmission over analog telephone networks, and subsequently back from analog into digital on the other end of the connection.

Modulator - The part of the modem that converts digital signals to analog signals.

Multiplexer - (MUX) An electronic device that accepts several signals and combines them into one high-speed, composite data stream.

Network - A system that is designed to provide multiple connections between diverse communications devices and more importantly between end users. Networks provide multiple communications paths. Can refer to computer networks, such as office LANS or more geographically diverse WANS, or to voice networks, such as those deployed internally through customer premise telephone systems, or the public telephone providers network which consists of various "routing points" in local switching stations and the extended network of end user telephones and other devices.

Network Interface Card - (NIC) A printed circuit board installed into a network device. When the card is cabled, the NIC allows the device to communicate on a network.

Packet – a logical group of data.

Packet switching - Data transmission where messages are divided into packets, each with a destination address. Each packet is switched independently from others in the same logical conversation.

PPP - point-to-point protocol is an alternative to SLIP and provides router to router and host to network connections over both synchronous and asynchronous circuits.

POTS (Plain-Old-Telephone-Service) -Another name for traditional wired, land based telephone service.

Port - In software, a memory address to which information is transferred. In hardware, a connector that allows devices to be physically attached.

Proprietary - A specification or implementation created by a single private organization.

Protocol - A formal set of rules or agreements governing message exchange.

PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) - A formal name for the worldwide telephone network.

PVC - permanent virtual circuit, is a permanent logical connection between two end points that are carrying user frame relay encapsulated data.

RJ-45 - is a single-line jack for digital transmission over ordinary phone line or Ethernet. The interface has eight pins or positions. Used for connecting a modem, printer, or a data PBX.

RS-232/485/422 - Communications interface developed by the EIA. It is commonly used between electronic devices such as computers, modems, and printers.

Router - A system responsible for making decisions about which of several paths network (or Internet) traffic will follow. To do this it uses a routing protocol to gain information about the network, and algorithms to choose the best route based on several criteria known as "routing metrics."

Short Duration Transaction Network (SDTN) - Short duration transactions are a data exchange between devices and only exists for a short period of time, generally a few seconds. Generally, the exchange consists of a single message sent, or a single message and a single response eg financial transactions, Internet browsing and security systems.

SNMP - simple network management protocol, a network management tool used in TCP/IP based networks that are used to manage the network equipment and processes.

Synchronous transmission - Method of transmission where messages are sent as continuous bit streams. Each block of data is preceded by a synchronous character or character sequence and is followed by an end-of-message sequence.

TCP - Transmission Control Protocol is the main transport protocol in the Internet protocol suite. It provides reliable connection/stream oriented end-to-end connectivity.

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) - Data transmission protocol that provides for connections of diverse computers and computing platform across networks whether local or over great distances. TCP IP transmission provides the building block transmission standards that underlie the formation and ongoing operation of the world’s largest and most diverse network, the Internet.

Terminal adapter (TA) - is a hardware interface between a computer and an Integrated Services Digital Network line. It's what replaces a modem when you are using an ISDN connection. Unlike "plain old telephone service," which carries signal in analog (voice) form between your computer and the telephone company's office, ISDN carries signals in digital form so there is no need to modulate and demodulate between analog and digital signals. The terminal adapter is what you have to feed data directly into so that the data can be fed directly into the ISDN line in digital form.

Universal Serial Bus (USB) - is a plug-and-play interface between a computer and add-on devices (such as audio players, keyboards, telephones, scanners, and printers). With USB, a new device can be added to your computer without having to add an adapter card or even having to turn the computer off.

V.22/24/35 - A data communications interface standard adopted for use with circuits 56Kbps and above.

WAN - Wide area network, a network of circuits spanning a large region or global in proportions, that is used to transmit data between widespread subscribers.

X.25/32 - Transmission protocol standardized by CCITT for packet switching. Originally created for connecting terminals to computers


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